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BCC Ruling No. 97-30-572

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IN THE MATTER OF Subsection 24 (1) of the Building Code Act, 1992.

AND IN THE MATTER OF Articles and of "the Building Code" (Ontario Regulation 419/89 as amended by Ont. Reg. 183/88, 581/88, 11/89 and 115/89)

AND IN THE MATTER OF an application by Mr. Terrell Heard, Golden Horseshoe Court Development Ltd., Ontario, for the resolution of a dispute with Mr. Bram Radix, Chief Building Official, Town of Lincoln, Ontario concerning whether mobiles homes should be anchored according to Appendix Article A-, Article and Article of the Ontario Building Code at Golden Horseshoe Court, 4590 John Street, Beamsville, Ontario.

Mr. Terrell Heard, President
Golden Horseshoe Court Development Ltd.,
Beamsville, Ontario


Mr. Bram Radix
Chief Building Official
Town of Lincoln

Mr. Roy Philippe (Chair)
Mr. Rick Florio
Mr. Ross Thomson

Toronto, Ontario

Tuesday, July 22nd, 1997

Mr. Terrell Heard
Golden Horseshoe Court Developments Ltd.
Beamsville, Ontario
The Applicant


  1. The Applicant

Mr. Terrell Heard, Golden Horseshoe Development was issued a building permit under the Building Code Act, 1992 to construct mobile homes located in the Golden Horseshoe Court at 4590 John Street, Beamsville, Ontario.

  1. Description of Construction

The mobile homes are one storey in building height and are of combustible construction. Each building area is not more than 100 square metres. The mobile home units are 14 to 16 feet wide (4.27m to 4.88m) and 40 to 80 feet long (12.2m to 24.4m). The unit weight of the mobile homes is 30 to 35 lb./square feet (147 to 170 kg/square metre. The surface foundation is a timber cribbing system.

  1. Dispute

The dispute between the Applicant and Respondent concerns whether mobile homes are required to be anchored in accordance with Articles and of the Building Code.

  1. Provisions of the Building Code

Article Anchorage of Smaller Buildings

(1) Buildings not more than 4.3 m (14 ft 1 in) in width and not more than 1 storey in building height may be anchored by means of corrosion-resistant steel rods or cables of not less than 12.7 mm (1/2 in) diam, attached to the building frame near each corner of the building in such a manner that will develop the full strength of the rod or cable.

(2) Each rod or cable described in Sentence (1) shall be anchored to the ground by means of ground anchors having a withdrawal resistance of not less than 500 N for each metre of length (34 lb for each foot of length) of the building.

Article Overturning and Sliding

(1) A building shall be proportioned to resist an overturning moment and sliding force of not less than twice that due to the loads acting on the structure when the structure is considered as an entire unit acting on or anchored to its bearing stratum or supporting structure.

(2) The resistance to overturning shall be calculated as the sum of stabilizing moment of the dead load only, plus the ultimate resistance of any anchoring devices.

  1. Applicant's Position

The Applicant retained Proctor and Redfern Limited to evaluate the anchorage and foundation requirements for the mobile homes. The foundation system was found to conform with the CSA Z240.10.1-94, "Site Preparation, Foundation and Anchorage of Mobile Homes", Standard for soil bearing pressure, frost action and stability against pier toppling. The anchorage requirements were evaluated in accordance with the formulae in Clause 5.9 of Z240.10.1-94.

The Applicant also retained Trow Consulting Engineers Limited to evaluate the pullout resistance of specific ground anchors installed in the proposed mobile home park. Four pullout tests were performed in accordance with the formulae in Clause 5.9 of the CSA Z240.10.1-94 Standard which addresses anchorage to resist overturning of mobile homes. Subsection 5.8 of the Standard permits that if engineering calculation can show that a mobile home will remain stable under a particular range of design wind pressures, ground anchorage is not required. The engineering calculations concluded that with the foundations used and the weight and size of the units installed, the results satisfied the overturning and pier toppling criteria without anchors.

CSA Z240.10.1-94 also recommended certain minimum anchorage details in "tornado prone areas." The consultants obtained information from Environment Canada that indicated Beamsville is in an area where the tornado frequency is described as 1.2 to 1.6 tornadoes per year per 10,000 square kilometres. Based on the stated frequency the consultants calculated the probability of a tornado striking the trailer park in a given year as 1 in 900.

  1. Chief Building Official's Position

The Respondent retained J. David Pounder Ltd. to review the report by Proctor and Redfern Limited. The Consultant does not agree with the deletion of anchoring as tornadoes have occurred in the general vicinity; therefore the design must include tornadoes impact. The Respondent submitted that the current proposed anchorage system must conform to Articles and of the Building Code.

  1. Commission Ruling

It is the decision of the Building Code Commission that the mobile home as proposed complies with Article of the Building Code.

  1. Reasons:

i) Sentence specifies that the Building Code applies to site installations of manufactured buildings and if a difference exists between the Building Code and a standard considered good engineering practice, the Building Code prevails.

ii) Evidence from Environment Canada provided by the Applicant's Consulting Engineers indicates that the locality appears not to be prone to tornadoes.

Dated at Toronto this 22nd day in the month of July in the year 1997 for application number 1997-30

Roy Philippe, Chair

Mr. Rick Florio

Mr. Ross Thomson