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Ranked Ballots - Guide for Clerks [PDF]

This guide has been prepared by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs to provide information to clerks about preparing for and conducting ranked ballot elections.

Rules for ranked ballot elections are set out in the Municipal Elections Act, 1996 and Ontario Regulation 310/16. This guide is current as of February 2017. If the government makes any amendments to the Municipal Elections Act, 1996 or the regulation, this guide will be updated as needed.

This guide provides general information in plain language about the rules contained in the Municipal Elections Act, 1996 and Regulation 310/16. It is not meant to replace provincial legislation. For more specific information, please refer to the relevant legislation and regulations which can be found online at www.ontario.ca/laws.

Municipal Elections Act, 1996
Ontario Regulation 310/16


Table of Contents

Introduction - Ranked Ballots 101

Authority

Single and Lower-Tier Municipalities
The By-Law
Considerations
Consultation Requirements

Upper Tier Municipalities
Upper-Tier Election – Division of Responsibilities
The By-Law
Considerations
Consultation Requirements

Return to Non-Ranked Ballot Elections

Ballots
Ballot design
Examples

Voting
Rejected Ballots
Rejected vs. Exhausted Ballots
Interpreting Rankings

Counting the Votes
Vote Counting – Single-Member Office
Vote Counting – Multi-Member Office

Elimination
Single Elimination
Batch Elimination

Breaking a Tie

Reporting Requirements

Recounts

Glossary – Key Terms used in Regulation 310/16

Example of Counting a Single-Member Election

Example of Counting a Multi-Member Election

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Introduction – Ranked Ballots 101

Beginning in 2018, municipalities in Ontario have the option to use ranked ballots for council elections. Ranked ballots are not an option for school trustee elections at this time.

Ranked ballot elections have two significant differences from the kinds of elections that Ontarians are used to.

The first difference is in the voting – how the voter marks the ballot. Instead of making a mark for their preferred candidate if one candidate is to be elected (or, if more than one candidate is to be elected, for their preferred candidates), the voter ranks the candidates in order of preference.

The second difference is in how the votes are counted, and the conditions that must be met in order for a candidate to be elected. Instead of operating under the rule that the candidate (or candidates) with the most votes wins, ranked ballot elections impose an additional condition: the candidate must receive a predetermined number of votes.

This predetermined number is called the threshold. The threshold is calculated so that it is not mathematically possible for too many candidates to receive enough votes to be elected:

  • If there are 100 voters electing one candidate the threshold is 51 – when one candidate has 51 votes, there are only 49 votes left
  • If there are 100 voters electing two candidates the threshold is 34 – when two candidates have 34 votes each, there are only 32 votes left

If, when the votes are counted, a candidate (or the number of candidates to be elected) has met or crossed the threshold, the counting is finished. However, if the number of candidates who meet or cross the threshold does not equal the number of candidates to be elected, votes must be redistributed and another round of vote counting done. This cycle repeats until the number of candidates to be elected have reached or crossed the threshold.

The rules for vote counting set out later in this guide explain how to calculate the threshold, how to determine which votes to redistribute and where those votes should go as well as any exceptions to the general rules.

Authority

Ontario Regulation 310/16 authorizes municipal councils to pass a by-law to use ranked ballots to elect the offices on that council. The regulation specifies that consultation must take place before the by-law is passed, and sets the deadline for passing the by-law.

Ranked ballots may not be used to elect school board trustees.

Single and Lower-Tier Municipalities

A single-tier or lower-tier municipality can pass a by-law to use ranked ballots to elect all of the offices on the council. In deciding whether or not to pass the by-law, council must consider a number of matters related to the election, and undertake the required consultation.

The By-Law

The by-law must apply to all of the offices being elected to that council. Ranked ballots cannot be used to elect certain offices only (e.g., using ranked ballots for mayor but not for councillors).

Note:Offices that sit on both the lower-tier and upper-tier councils (e.g., a mayor or other council member elected to the lower-tier, and who also sits on the upper-tier) are considered to be elected to the lower-tier council only.

The by-law may specify the maximum number of rankings (i.e., the number of candidates a voter can choose to rank) permitted for each office. This number can differ for different offices. For example, if a council consists of a mayor, and four councillors elected at large, the by-law could specify that the maximum number of rankings for mayor is three, while the maximum number of rankings for councillor is four.

If the by-law does not specify the maximum number of rankings, it defaults to a maximum of three.

The deadline for a single or lower-tier council to pass the by-law is May 1 in the year before the year of the election. For the 2018 municipal election, the deadline is May 1, 2017.

If ranked ballots were used in the regular election, they must be used in any by-elections that are held during the council term.

Considerations

A single or lower-tier council must consider the following matters before passing the by-law:

  1. The costs to the municipality of conducting the election
  2. The availability of technology for voting and vote-counting
  3. The impact on election administration

Clerks may wish to include a description of costs, availability of technology and election administration considerations in staff reports to council in order to facilitate council meeting this requirement.

Consultation Requirements

A single or lower-tier council must hold at least one open house and at least one public meeting prior to passing the by-law. The open house allows the municipality to share information with the public, while the public meeting allows the public to share their thoughts with the municipality. The open house must be held at least 15 days before the public meeting.

The following information must be provided at the open house and the public meeting:

  1. A detailed description of how ranked ballot elections would be conducted, including a description of how the vote counting works.
  2. An estimate of the cost of conducting the election.
  3. A description of any voting equipment and vote-counting equipment that is being considered.
  4. A description of any alternative voting method being considered.

The descriptions of equipment and alternative voting methods may be limited by the information available at the time.

Everyone who attends the public meeting must be given the opportunity to make representations in respect of the proposed by-law.

The notice for the open house and the public meeting must be published at least 30 days beforehand in a newspaper having general circulation in the municipality. Notice must also be provided to any member of the public who requested to be notified in the two years before the date of the open house or public meeting.

The municipality may also use other methods of consultation, such as putting a question on the ballot or forming an advisory committee. These additional consultations would not take the place of the open house and public meeting, which would still have to be held prior to council passing the by-law.

Upper-Tier Municipalities

An upper-tier municipality can pass a by-law to use ranked ballots to elect those offices on council that are directly elected to the upper-tier (i.e., those members who sit on the upper-tier council but not on a lower-tier council).

An upper-tier municipality can only pass the by-law if all of its lower-tier municipalities are using ranked ballots to elect their council members.

The voting and vote counting for directly elected upper-tier council seats is administered by the lower-tier clerks, using the voting places, ballots, equipment, etc. of the lower-tier municipality. The restriction mentioned above helps to ensure that lower-tier clerks will not be obligated to administer the voting and vote counting of a ranked ballot election on the upper-tier’s behalf unless the lower-tier municipalities have the equipment, procedures and processes in place to conduct ranked ballot elections for their own offices.

Upper-Tier Election – Division of Responsibilities

Under the Municipal Elections Act, 1996, responsibility for conducting a non-ranked ballot election for directly elected upper-tier offices is split between the clerk of the upper-tier municipality and the clerks of the constituent lower-tiers. The upper-tier clerk is responsible for receiving nomination forms and related responsibilities with respect to candidates, while the lower-tier clerks have responsibilities regarding voters.

This division of responsibilities continues to apply when both tiers are using ranked ballots.

An office on an upper-tier council may be elected by voters in one lower-tier municipality (e.g., a regional councillor representing a lower-tier), or by voters in two or more lower-tier municipalities (e.g., a regional chair).

When an office on an upper-tier council is elected by voters in only one lower-tier municipality, the clerk of that lower-tier municipality is responsible for counting the votes and reporting the results to the clerk of the upper-tier municipality.

In a ranked ballot election where an office on an upper-tier council is elected by voters in more than one lower-tier municipality, it is not possible for each lower-tier clerk to count their ballots and then report the totals to the upper-tier clerk (as is done in a non-ranked ballot election). As counting and distribution based on next preferences requires consideration of all of the ballots at the same time, the ballots must be gathered and counted centrally. In this case, the clerk of the lower-tier municipality with the greatest number of eligible voters is responsible for counting the votes from all of the lower-tier municipalities and reporting the results to the upper-tier clerk. This means that the clerks of all of the other lower-tier municipalities must send the ballots (or, if paper ballots are not used, the data) for the upper-tier offices to the designated clerk in order to be counted.

Prior to the election, the lower-tier clerks must inform the upper-tier clerk of the number of eligible voters in the lower-tier municipality, based on the voters’ list as it existed at the close of voting in the previous regular election. The upper-tier clerk will determine which lower-tier municipality has the greatest number of eligible voters, and will inform the lower-tier clerks which clerk will be responsible for counting the votes.

The Municipal Elections Act, 1996 specifies that an upper-tier municipality must reimburse the lower-tier municipality for reasonable costs when the clerk of the lower-tier municipality counts the votes or conducts a recount for an upper-tier municipality’s ranked ballot election.

The By-Law

The by-law must apply to all of the offices being elected to the upper-tier council. Ranked ballots cannot be used to elect certain offices only (e.g., using ranked ballots for regional chair but not directly elected councillors). In deciding whether or not to pass the by-law, the upper-tier council must consider a number of matters related to the election, and undertake the required consultation.

Note: Members that sit on both upper and lower-tier councils (e.g., a mayor or other council member elected to the lower-tier, and who also sits on the upper-tier) are considered to be elected to the lower-tier council only.

The by-law may specify the maximum number of rankings (i.e., the number of candidates a voter can choose to rank) permitted for each office. This number can differ for different offices.

If the by-law does not specify the maximum number of rankings, it defaults to a maximum of three.

Assuming all single or lower-tier councils have passed a by-law to use ranked ballots in the next election, the deadline for an upper-tier council to pass the by-law is July 1 in the year before the year of the election. For the 2018 municipal election, the deadline is July 1, 2017.

If ranked ballots were used in the regular election, they must be used in any by-elections that are held during the council term. If any of the lower-tier municipalities decides during the council term that ranked ballots will not be used in the next regular election, the upper-tier council may not use ranked ballots in the next regular election either.

Considerations

An upper-tier council must consider the following matters before passing the by-law:

  1. The costs to the municipality of conducting the election
  2. The technology, if any, being used by the lower-tier municipalities for conducting their elections.

Clerks may wish to include an outline and description of costs and information regarding technology in staff reports to council in order to facilitate council meeting this requirement.

Each lower-tier municipality is responsible for deciding what alternative voting methods or equipment, if any, it will use. There is no authority for the council or clerk of the upper-tier municipality to determine voting methods and equipment. If there are offices on the upper-tier council that are elected by voters in more than one municipality, the upper-tier needs to consider whether there may be compatibility issues that could affect the vote counting.

Consultation Requirements

An upper-tier council must hold a public meeting (to allow the public to share their thoughts on the proposal with council) before passing a by-law for a ranked ballot election, but unlike the lower- tier municipalities, the upper- tier council does not have to hold an open house.

The following information must be made available to the public at least 15 days before the public meeting is held, and must also be made available at the public meeting:

  1. A detailed description of how ranked ballot elections would be conducted, including a description of how the vote counting works.
  2. An estimate of the cost of conducting the election.

Everyone who attends the public meeting must be given the opportunity to make representations in respect of the proposed by-law.

The notice for the public meeting must be published at least 30 days beforehand in a newspaper or a combination of newspapers that together have circulation that covers the municipality. Notice must also be provided to any member of the public who has requested to be notified in the two years before the date of the public meeting.

The municipality may also use other methods of consultation, such putting a question on the ballot or forming an advisory committee. These additional consultations would not take the place of the public meeting, which would still have to be held prior to council passing the by-law.

Return to Non-Ranked Ballot Elections

The deadline and consultation requirements for single, lower and upper-tier municipalities also apply to any by-law that would repeal the by-law that put ranked ballot elections in place. However, when considering a by-law to repeal, council does not have to provide information regarding how the votes are counted when ranked ballots are not used.

Ballots

The general rules for ballots set out in the Municipal Elections Act, 1996 also apply to ballots used in a ranked ballot election:

  • Only the names of certified candidates can appear on the ballot.
  • Names appear in alphabetical order by surname.
  • With the clerk’s agreement, the candidate may use a different name.
  • No titles, degrees, occupation, etc. can appear on the ballot.
  • The clerk may determine how to differentiate candidates with identical or similar names.
  • There must be a space for marking the ballot to the right of each candidate’s name.
  • All ballots for the same office must be identical or as nearly alike as possible.

For a ranked ballot election, ballots must also indicate the number of candidates to be elected for each office.

Instructions must be made available to voters at the voting place telling them:

  1. How to mark the ballot so that the rankings can be read.
  2. How to rank candidates in the order of preference.
  3. The maximum number of candidates that may be ranked for each office, and informing the voter that if the number of candidates running for the office is less than the maximum, the voter may rank all of the candidates for the office.

These instructions do not have to appear on the ballot.

Ballot design

Ballot design may depend on the technology (if any) that is being used for voting and/or vote counting. There are different ways that a ranked ballot can be designed. Some designs may help voters avoid errors or make it easier to tell the difference between ranked ballot and non-ranked ballot (e.g., school board trustee) portions of a composite ballot.

Note: A “composite ballot” is a document that contains the individual ballots for more than one office.

Examples of options for ranked ballot designs:

List – a space is provided to the right of each candidate’s name and the voter writes the ranking that they wish to give to a candidate.

Example of a list ballot

Columns – the list of candidates is reprinted in the number of columns that corresponds to the maximum number of permitted rankings, with a space next to each candidate’s name in every column. In the first column, voters mark the space next to the candidate they wish to rank as their first choice; in the second column voters mark the space next to the candidate they wish to rank as their second choice, etc.

Example of a column ballot

Grid – candidates’ names are listed on the left side of a grid. To the right are a series of columns. The number of columns is determined by the maximum number of permitted rankings. Voters make one mark in each column in the row assigned to the candidate that they want to give that column’s ranking to.

Example of a grid ballot

Voting

Voters mark their preferences according to the instructions provided. A voter does not have to mark the maximum number of rankings permitted for each office. For example, if the maximum number of rankings permitted is three, the voter may indicate a preference for just one, just two or three candidates.

Rejected Ballots

A ballot must be rejected under the following circumstances:

  • It was not supplied by the deputy returning officer.
  • It has been damaged or contains marks that could be used to identify the voter (in the case of a composite ballot, this would result in the rejection of the ballots for all of the offices on the composite ballot).
  • The voter’s highest preference cannot be determined because:
    • no preferences have been marked
    • all preferences have been marked outside of the designated space
    • the voter has given more than one candidate their highest ranking
    (in the case of a composite ballot, the ballot for each office must be assessed separately. For example, if a vote marked preferences for mayor, but did not mark any preferences for councillor, the ballot for mayor would be counted and the ballot for councillor rejected).

Rejected vs. Exhausted Ballots

If a ballot has been counted in the first round, it cannot be rejected in a subsequent round. If the next highest preference on a ballot is to be considered in a subsequent round, but the next highest preference cannot be determined or used at that time, the ballot is exhausted rather than rejected.

Interpreting Rankings

If a voter has given the same candidate more than one ranking, only the highest ranking is considered.

If a voter has skipped a ranking, the highest remaining ranking is considered. This means that if a voter did not mark any candidate as their first choice, but did rank a second choice, the second choice is considered to be the voter’s highest preference and that choice will be counted in the first round of vote counting. Similarly, if a voter marked a first choice and a third choice, the first choice would be the highest preference and the third choice would be considered the next highest preference.

If a voter has marked some of their preferences in the appropriate spaces and some outside the appropriate spaces, the marks that are made outside the appropriate spaces must be disregarded. The ballot would then be treated as if the voter skipped those particular rankings.

The list ballot design might allow a voter to indicate more rankings than the maximum permitted (i.e., they are allowed to rank 1-2-3, but go on to mark more numbers in the spaces next to other candidates’ names). In this case, the rankings up to the permitted maximum are considered, and any ranking beyond the maximum is disregarded.

Examples:

No rankings have been assigned to candidates for the office, so the ballot is rejected.

Blank ballot

Skipped ranking – cherry is the highest preference; strawberry is the next highest preference.

Ballot showing skipped ranking

Two candidates have been ranked #1. The highest preference cannot be determined, so the ballot is rejected.

Ballot with two first rankings

Cherry is the highest preference. If cherry is eliminated, the ballot becomes exhausted, since the next highest preference cannot be determined.

Ballot with two second rankings

Counting the Votes

Votes in a ranked ballot election must be counted centrally, as opposed to a non-ranked ballot election where each deputy returning officer can count their own ballots and then send the totals to the clerk to be compiled. In a ranked ballot election, each deputy returning officer must instead seal the ballot boxes and deliver them to the clerk to be counted.

Note: In elections where voters are using ranked ballots for council offices but not for other offices (school trustee, upper-tier council office), the vote counting proceeds in two phases:

  1. The deputy returning officer is responsible for counting the votes for the non-ranked ballot offices, and then sending the statement of the results, as well as the sealed ballot box, to the clerk. The clerk is responsible for compiling the statements of results received from the deputy returning officers.
  2. Once the clerk has received all the ballot boxes, the clerk will commence counting the votes for the offices being elected using ranked ballots.

If alternative voting, voting equipment and/or vote counting equipment are used, the timing of the vote counting for the different phases may not be an issue.

When counting the votes in a ranked ballot election, missing ballots or data cannot be added in at the end of the vote counting process. This is because the missing ballots or data could result in a different candidate being eliminated in the first round of vote counting. If ballots or data are discovered during the vote count, the counting has to be restarted from the beginning. The clerk may wish to confirm that the data reported is accurate before beginning the vote count (i.e., numbers not transposed, all ballots present, results received from all voting locations, etc).

Note: There are specific requirements related to reporting the results of the election, such as the number of ballots cast, rejected and exhausted ballots, and vote totals for each round (see Reporting Requirements). The clerk may wish to review these reporting requirements before starting the vote counting process to ensure that all of the required items will be appropriately reported.

Vote Counting – Single-Member Office

A single-member office is an office where one person is to be elected. Examples include head of council, or a ward that is represented by one ward councillor. For an example of the single-member vote counting process, see Example of Counting a Single-Member Election

Calculate the Threshold

The formula for calculating the threshold of votes a candidate needs to be elected is:

formula to calculate threshold

Examples of calculating the threshold (assuming there are no rejected ballots):

1000 voters electing 1 candidate: [1000/(1+1)] +1 = 501 votes needed to win

500 voters electing 1 candidate: [500/(1+1)] +1 = 251 votes needed to win

351 voters electing 1 candidate: [351/(1+1)] +1 = 176 votes needed to win

If the result is not a whole number, the decimal portion must be disregarded. In the third example, above, the math works out to 176.5, which becomes 176 votes needed to win. The threshold is never rounded up. A number like 102.9 would become 102, not 103. Disregarding the decimal portion does not affect how many candidates can meet or exceed the threshold. If there are 351 votes and one candidate receives 176, the 175 votes remaining are not enough for a second candidate to reach the threshold.

The number of candidates that are running for the office is not relevant to calculating the threshold.

The number of ballots cast does not include any declined ballots (since a declined ballot is one that the voter has refused to cast).

The threshold is only calculated once, at the beginning of the vote counting process. It does not change for subsequent rounds of counting.

First Round

Distribute the votes to candidates based on the highest preference marked on each ballot. Total the votes for each candidate.

If a candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold, the vote count is finished. As soon as possible after voting day, declare that candidate elected.

If no candidate has reached the threshold, then a candidate or candidates must be eliminated from the vote counting. This may be done using either single or batch elimination (see Elimination).

Examine the ballots that have been cast for the eliminated candidate(s), and identify any exhausted ballots. A ballot becomes exhausted if the vote is to be transferred and the voter’s next preference cannot be determined or used because:

  • the voter has not ranked a next preference
  • the voter has assigned the next preference to more than one candidate
  • none of the remaining preferences are for continuing candidates
  • the ballot has already reached the maximum number of rankings

Remember: Exhausted ballots are different than rejected ballots. A rejected ballot is not included in the calculation of the threshold, and is not counted in the first round. An exhausted ballot is one that was counted in the first round (and possibly subsequent rounds) but has reached a point where the next preference can no longer be determined or used. The threshold does not change as a result of an exhausted ballot. It remains the same for all rounds.

Transfer the votes from the eliminated candidate(s) to the continuing candidate with next highest preference marked on each ballot. If a ballot is exhausted, the vote does not count toward any candidate. In subsequent rounds, the vote total for an eliminated candidate will equal zero.

A continuing candidate is one that has not been eliminated. If the next highest preference marked on a ballot is another eliminated candidate, that preference is disregarded and the highest remaining ranking for a continuing candidate is considered to be the next highest preference.

Second Round

Determine the number of votes received by each continuing candidate. This total will include the votes cast for the candidate (as counted in the first round) plus any votes transferred to the candidate as a result of an elimination in the previous round.

If a candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold, the vote count is finished. As soon as possible after voting day, declare that candidate elected.

If no candidate has reached the threshold, then a candidate or candidates must be eliminated from the vote counting. This may be done using either single or batch elimination (see Elimination).

Examine the ballots that had been cast for the eliminated candidate(s) and identify any exhausted ballots. Transfer the votes from the eliminated candidate(s) to the continuing candidate with next highest preference marked on each ballot. If the ballot is exhausted the vote does not count towards any candidate.

Subsequent Rounds

Repeat the steps from the second round. In each subsequent round, the total number of votes received by a continuing candidate includes the votes cast for the candidate (as counted in the first round), plus any votes transferred to the candidate in the previous rounds.

Note: Do not use the number of the round as the way to determine which preference to consider (e.g., do not automatically consider the third preference on each ballot because it’s the third round). The next highest preference must be determined separately for each ballot.

Election Without Reaching the Threshold

It is possible for a candidate to be elected without having reached the threshold. This may happen because ballots that become exhausted don’t count toward any candidate and essentially are removed from the pool of available votes.

If the vote count reaches a point where there are only two candidates remaining and neither has reached the threshold, the candidate who has received the most votes is the winner. As soon as possible after voting day, declare that candidate elected.

Vote Counting – Multi-Member Office

A multi-member office is an office where more than one person is to be elected. Examples include councils where all councillors are elected at large, or a ward that is represented by two or more ward councillors. For an example of the multi-member vote counting process, see Example of Counting a Multi-Member Election.

The multi-member vote counting process differs from the single-member process in one key respect: the need to transfer the surplus votes from a candidate who has exceeded the threshold. In a single-member election, only one candidate can cross the threshold, and once they do, the vote counting is over. In a multi-member election, when one candidate has crossed the threshold, there are still additional candidates to elect. If the first candidate to cross the threshold keeps all of their votes, that may not leave enough votes for the next candidate to be able to reach the threshold.

For example: There are 100 voters, and four councillors are being elected at large. The threshold is 21 votes. There is one very popular candidate who is the first choice of 90 voters. If the surplus votes of the successful candidate were not transferred, after the first round there would only be 10 votes left between the other candidates, which would not be enough for one more candidate to reach the threshold, let alone three.

The rules for calculating and distributing the surplus votes are set out in Outcome A of each round.

Calculate the Threshold

The formula for calculating the threshold of votes a candidate needs to be elected is:

formula to calculate threshold

Examples of calculating the threshold (assuming there are no rejected ballots):

6000 voters electing 2 candidates: [6000/(2+1)] +1 = 2001 votes needed to win

1000 voters electing 3 candidates: [1000/(3+1)] +1 = 251 votes needed to win

500 voters electing 4 candidates: [500/(4+1)] +1 = 101 votes needed to win

If the result is not a whole number, the decimal portion must be disregarded. The threshold is never rounded up.

The number of members that are to be elected is used in the calculation. The number of candidates that are running for the office is not relevant to calculating the threshold.

The number of ballots cast does not include any declined ballots (since a declined ballot is one that the voter has refused to cast).

The threshold is only calculated once, at the beginning of the vote counting process. It does not change for subsequent rounds of counting.

First Round

Distribute the votes to candidates based on the highest preference marked on each ballot. This will result in one of two outcomes:

  1. one or more candidates reach or exceed the threshold
  2. no candidates reach or exceed the threshold.

Follow the steps in either Outcome A or Outcome B, as applicable, and then proceed to the next round. Do not follow the steps in both Outcome A and Outcome B in the same round.

Outcome A: One or more candidates reach or exceed the threshold

If the number of candidates who have reached or exceeded the threshold is the same as the number of members to be elected, the vote count is finished. As soon as possible after voting day, declare those candidates elected.

If only one candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold, they are the successful candidate of that round. As soon as possible after voting day, declare that candidate elected.

There can only be one successful candidate in a round (except where the number of members to be elected equals the number of candidates who have reached or exceeded the threshold). If more than one candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold, but that number is still less than the number of members to be elected, the candidate with the most votes is the successful candidate of that round. As soon as possible after voting day, declare the successful candidate elected. (The other candidate or candidates at or above the threshold will be successful candidates in subsequent rounds when they become the candidate with the most votes.)

If two or more candidates who have reached or exceeded the threshold are tied with the most votes, the tie must be broken in order to determine the successful candidate for the round. (See Breaking a Tie.

The successful candidate has a surplus if the number of votes they received is higher than the threshold.

If the successful candidate has reached the threshold but has not exceeded it, the surplus will be zero, and there will be nothing to distribute. Proceed to the next round.

If the successful candidate has a surplus, it must be distributed. This surplus distribution is done by transferring a portion of each of the votes received by the successful candidate to the continuing candidate with the next highest preference marked on each ballot.

Step one: Calculate the transfer ratio for the round

This step determines the size of the portion of each vote to be transferred. The formula is:

formula to calculate transfer ratio

Example: The threshold is 2001 votes; the candidate receives 3001 votes:

3001 – 2001 = 1000 (the candidate received 1000 votes more than needed)
1000 / 3001 = 0.3332

Note: when making calculations, calculate to four decimal places, ignoring any remainder. The fourth decimal place is never rounded up.

Step two: Calculate the value of the partial vote for each ballot to be transferred from the successful candidate

This is done by multiplying the transfer ratio by the current value of the vote on the ballot. In the first round, the current value of the vote is always 1 (i.e., one full vote). While this direction may seem redundant in the first round, it is important to understand this principle for future rounds of vote counting where vote values may differ from ballot to ballot.

Example: Value of partial vote = 1 x 0.3332.

For each ballot worth one full vote, a partial vote worth 0.3332 of a full vote will be transferred.

Examine all of the ballots that have been cast for the successful candidate and identify any exhausted ballots.

Remember: Exhausted ballots are still used in the calculation of the transfer ratio above, as those votes counted toward the total number of votes the successful candidate received.

Transfer the partial vote from every ballot cast for the successful candidate to the continuing candidate with the next highest preference marked on each ballot.

If a ballot is exhausted, the partial vote does not count toward any candidate. It does not remain with the successful candidate. In subsequent rounds, the vote total for the successful candidate will equal the threshold. (See Round Two of Multi-member counting example.)

Proceed to the next round.

 

Outcome B: No candidates reach or exceed the threshold

If no candidate has reached the threshold, then a candidate or candidates must be eliminated from the vote counting. This may be done by using either single or batch elimination (see Elimination).

Examine the ballots that have been cast for the eliminated candidate(s), and identify any exhausted ballots.

Transfer the votes from the eliminated candidate(s) to the continuing candidate with next highest preference marked on each ballot. If a ballot is exhausted, the vote does not count toward any candidate. In subsequent rounds, the vote total for an eliminated candidate will equal zero.

Proceed to the next round.

Second Round

Determine the number of votes received by each continuing candidate. This total will include the votes cast for the candidate (as counted in the first round) plus any votes or portions of votes transferred to the candidate as a result of the distribution of a surplus or an elimination in the previous round.

This will result in one of two outcomes:

  1. one or more candidates reach or exceed the threshold
  2. no candidates reach or exceed the threshold.

Follow the steps in either A or B, as applicable, and then proceed to the next round. Do not follow the steps in both A and B in the same round.

Outcome A: One or more candidates reach or exceed the threshold

If the number of candidates who have reached or exceeded the threshold (including any successful candidate from the previous round) is the same as the number of members to be elected, the vote count is finished. As soon as possible after voting day, declare those candidates elected.

If one candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold, they are the successful candidate of that round. As soon as possible after voting day, declare that candidate elected.

If more than one candidate has reached or exceeded the threshold (but not enough candidates to fill all of the remaining seats to be elected), the candidate with the most votes is the successful candidate.

If two or more candidates who have reached or exceeded the threshold are tied with the most votes, the tie must be broken in order to determine the successful candidate for the round. (See Breaking a Tie).

If the successful candidate has reached the threshold but has not exceeded it, the surplus will be zero, and there will be nothing to distribute. Proceed to the next round.

If the successful candidate in this round has a surplus, it must be distributed to the continuing candidates.

Step one: Calculate the transfer ratio for the round

This step determines the size of the portion of each vote to be transferred. As in the first round, the formula is:

formula for calculating transfer ratio

Votes received include the votes that were cast for the candidate in the first round, and any votes or portions of votes that were transferred to the candidate.

Step two: Calculate the value of the partial vote for each ballot to be transferred from the successful candidate

This is done by multiplying the transfer ratio by the current value of the vote on the ballot.

Ballots that indicated the candidate as the highest preference (i.e., the vote was cast for the candidate), have a value of 1.

Ballots that were transferred as a result of a candidate being eliminated after the first round have a value of 1.

Ballots that were transferred as a result of a surplus distribution have the value that was calculated in the previous round.

Example: a candidate in the second round receives 2615 votes. The threshold is still 2001 votes.

     2615 – 2001 = 614 (the candidate received 614 votes more than needed)
     614 / 2615 = 0.2347

The transfer ratio is calculated to be 0.2347.

  • A ballot that had been cast for the candidate would have a new value of 0.2347 (0.2347 x 1).
  • A ballot that had been transferred in the first round with a value of 0.3332 would have a new value of 0.0782 (0.3332 x 0.2347).

Examine the ballots that have been cast for the successful candidate and identify any exhausted ballots. Remember: exhausted ballots are still used in the calculation of the transfer ratio above.

Transfer the partial vote from each ballot to the continuing candidate with the next highest preference marked on each ballot, at the value calculated for that particular ballot.

If a ballot is exhausted, the partial vote does not count toward any candidate. It does not remain with the successful candidate. In subsequent rounds, the vote total for the successful candidate will equal the threshold.

Proceed to the next round.

 

Outcome B: No candidates reach or exceed the threshold

If no candidate has reached the threshold, then a candidate or candidates must be eliminated from the vote counting. This may done using either single or batch elimination (see Elimination).

Examine the ballots that had been cast for the eliminated candidate(s), and identify any exhausted ballots.

Ballots from eliminated candidates are transferred at their current value(s). A ballot that is worth a portion of a vote (because it was transferred to the candidate as a result of a surplus distribution) continues to be worth a portion of a vote.

Transfer the votes and any portions of votes from the eliminated candidate(s) to the continuing candidate with next highest preference marked on each ballot. A continuing candidate is one that has not been eliminated, or was not a successful candidate in a previous round.

If a ballot is exhausted, the vote or portion of a vote does not count toward any candidate. In subsequent rounds, the vote total for an eliminated candidate will equal zero.

Proceed to the next round.

Subsequent Rounds

Repeat the steps from the second round. In each subsequent round, the total number of votes received by a continuing candidate includes the votes cast for the candidate (as counted in the first round), plus any votes or portions of votes transferred to the candidate in the previous rounds.

Note: Do not use the number of the round as the way to determine which preference to consider (e.g., do not automatically consider the third preference on each ballot because it’s the third round). The next highest preference must be determined separately for each ballot.

Election Without Reaching the Threshold

It is possible for a candidate to be elected without having reached the threshold.

In a multi-member election, for example, this may happen with the final member to be elected.

If the vote count reaches a point where eliminating the candidate with the fewest votes would leave the same number of continuing candidates as there are members left to be elected, the candidates who do not have the fewest votes are considered to be successful candidates. As soon as possible after voting day, declare those candidates elected.

For example: Five members are to be elected. After multiple rounds of counting, three candidates have been successful and three continuing candidates remain. If none of the three continuing candidates meet or exceed the threshold, eliminating the candidate with the fewest votes would leave two continuing candidates to fill two remaining spots. Those two candidates would be deemed successful even though they did not reach the threshold.

Elimination

Prior to the election, the clerk must determine whether to use the single elimination method or the batch elimination method to eliminate one or more candidates in a round of vote counting. The same method must be used for all offices and all rounds of vote counting. This determination must be made by December 31 in the year before the year of the election, and each candidate must be notified, in writing, which method will be used when they file their nomination.

Single Elimination

In the single elimination method, only one candidate is eliminated per round.

If it is necessary to eliminate a candidate because no candidate has reached the threshold needed to be elected, the candidate with the fewest votes in that round is eliminated. The number of votes that a candidate has includes the votes cast for the candidate in the first round, and any votes that were transferred to the candidate in subsequent rounds.

If more than one candidate is tied with the fewest votes, the tie must be broken (see Breaking a Tie) and one candidate eliminated in that round.

Batch Elimination

In the batch elimination method, all candidates who have no mathematical chance of being elected are eliminated simultaneously in a round.

Consider the candidates listed in order of votes received, from the most to the fewest votes.

A candidate has no mathematical chance of being elected if the number of votes received by the candidate, plus the total of all of the candidates below them on the list, would not be enough to put them ahead of the candidate above them on the list.

For example:

  • Candidate U: 38 votes
  • Candidate V: 25 votes
  • Candidate W: 10 votes
  • Candidate X: 5 votes
  • Candidate Y: 4 votes

Candidates W, X, and Y can be eliminated. If all of X and Y’s votes were transferred to W, W would still end up in last place with 19 votes. Candidate V cannot be eliminated, because it is possible that V could pull ahead of U and move up the list. For example, if Candidate V got the combined 19 votes of W, X, and Y, Candidate V would have 44 votes.

It is possible to have a batch that consists of only one candidate.

Breaking a Tie

Ties between candidates must be broken under the following circumstances:

  • a candidate must be eliminated from the vote counting and two or more candidates have the fewest votes,
  • the successful candidate for the round must be determined and two or more candidates at or above the threshold have the most votes

Note: The number of votes must be identical to four decimal places in order for the candidates to be considered tied. Candidates that are less than one vote apart (e.g., 250.5679 votes to 250.5678 votes) are not tied.

The tie breaking mechanism relies first on the vote totals of candidates in previous rounds, and if this does not resolve the tie, drawing a name by lot. Unlike the drawing of names in a non-ranked ballot election, the name drawn is not necessarily “the winner”. If resolving a tie is necessary, it would be advisable to clearly explain to the candidates what will happen to the candidate whose name is drawn.

When a tie is resolved by drawing a name, this result must be written down and reused if there is a recount and the tie occurs again.

Determining which candidate to eliminate

If the candidate with the fewest votes is to be eliminated, and two or more candidates are tied for the fewest votes, the tie must be broken to determine which candidate will be considered to be the one with the fewest votes and thereby eliminated.

The candidate who had the fewest votes in the preceding round (including votes cast for the candidate in the first round, and any votes and partial votes transferred in subsequent rounds) is considered to be the candidate with the fewest votes in the current round. If the candidates were tied in that preceding round, the vote totals in the round previous to that are considered. If the candidates were tied in all rounds, then a name must be drawn by lot.

The name drawn by lot is the candidate who is considered to have the fewest votes in the current round and who will be eliminated.

Unlike many cases where drawing a name determines the winner, the name drawn in this circumstance instead determines who “loses” because this will resolve the tie even in a situation where more than two candidates have the same number of votes.

Determining which candidate’s surplus to distribute

If more than one candidate reaches or exceeds the threshold in the same round (but not enough candidates to fill all of the seats to be elected), only the candidate with the most votes is considered to be the successful candidate and will have their surplus distributed. If two or more candidates who reach or exceed the threshold are tied for the most votes, the tie must be broken to determine which candidate will be considered to be the one with the most votes in the current round.

The candidate who had the most votes in the preceding round (including votes cast for the candidate in the first round, and any votes and partial votes transferred in subsequent rounds) is considered to be the candidate with the most votes in the current round. If the candidates were tied in that preceding round, the vote totals in the round previous to that are considered. If the candidates were tied in all rounds, then a name must be drawn by lot.

The name drawn by lot is the candidate who is considered to have the greatest number of votes in the current round and who will be the successful candidate.

Reporting Requirements

As soon as possible after voting day, the following information must be made available to the public on a website or in another electronic format for each office that was elected:

  • The number of ballots cast for the office
  • The number of ballots that were declined
  • The number of rejected ballots
  • The threshold calculated for the office
  • The number of votes cast for each candidate (counted in the first round)
  • The results of each round of vote counting, including the number of votes received by each continuing candidate and the number of exhausted ballots.

For a multi-member election, it may also be useful to indicate the value of the exhausted ballots, since there may be ballots that are worth a portion of a vote rather than a full vote.

Recounts

It is not possible in a ranked ballot election to do a recount of the votes for specific candidates only. All of the ballots for the office must be counted again.

If the court orders a recount under section 58 of the Municipal Elections Act, 1996, the recount must be done in the same manner as the original count.

If there is an application for a judicial recount under section 63 of the Municipal Elections Act, 1996 and the court determines that a recount is required, the court will determine the validity of the disputed ballots, and then order the clerk to conduct a recount of the votes for all of the candidates running for the office.

The clerk must conduct the recount and report the results to the court.

Glossary – Key Terms used in Regulation 310/16

Ballot

"Ballot" refers to the ballot for a specific office.

If a composite ballot is used, the ballot for each office being elected must be considered separately.

For example, on a composite ballot, a voter may mark their preferences for mayor, but not mark any preferences for councillor.

  • When counting the votes for the office of mayor, the ballot would be included in the calculation of the threshold for mayor, and the vote counted according to the rules.
  • When counting the votes for the office of councillor, the ballot for the office is blank, and therefore rejected. As a rejected ballot, it is not included in the calculation of the threshold for councillor.

Batch Elimination

In the batch elimination method, all candidates who have no mathematical chance of being elected are eliminated simultaneously in a round.

Consider the candidates listed in order of votes received, from the most to the fewest votes.

A candidate has no mathematical chance of being elected if the number of votes received by the candidate, plus the total of all of the candidates below them on the list, would not be enough to put them ahead of the candidate immediately above them on the list.

Continuing Candidate

A continuing candidate is one who is still "in the race":

  • In a single member election, any candidate who has not been eliminated from the vote counting
  • In a multi-member election, any candidate who has not been eliminated from the vote counting or who is not a "successful candidate"

Votes and partial votes can only be transferred to continuing candidates. They cannot be transferred to candidates who have been eliminated, or who were "successful" candidates in a previous round. For example, if the second preference on the ballot is for a candidate who has already been eliminated, the third preference becomes the "next highest preference" and the vote or partial vote is transferred to that candidate.

Declined Ballot

If a voter returns their ballot and indicates that they are declining to vote, the ballot is marked "declined". Declined ballots are not included in the number of ballots cast for any of the offices on the ballot, or in the calculation of the threshold.

Eliminated Candidate

An eliminated candidate is one who has been eliminated from the vote counting process during a round either through the single elimination or batch elimination method. A candidate who has been eliminated in a round will have their votes transferred to the continuing candidate with the next highest preference on each ballot. Once a candidate has been eliminated, they cannot have votes transferred to them in subsequent rounds. The vote total for an eliminated candidate in subsequent rounds will be zero. (See Round Two of Single-member counting example.)

Exhausted Ballot

Exhausted ballots can only occur after the first round of vote counting. A ballot becomes exhausted if the vote is to be transferred and the voter’s next preference cannot be used or determined because:

  • the voter has not ranked a next preference
  • the voter has assigned the next preference to more than one candidate
  • none of the remaining preferences are for continuing candidates
  • the ballot has already gone through the maximum number of rankings

If a partial vote is to be transferred as part of a surplus in a multi-member election, the exhausted ballot is included in the calculation of the transfer ratio related to the transfer of a candidate’s surplus votes. The surplus portion of the exhausted ballot does not count towards any candidate.

Partial Vote/Portion of Vote

In a multi-member election, partial votes may be transferred from a successful candidate who has a surplus.

Rejected Ballot

A ballot may be rejected for two main reasons:

  1. The ballot is “spoiled” because:
    • it is damaged in a way that could identify the voter
    • it contains identifying marks
    • all the preferences are marked outside the designated space
  2. The voter’s highest preference cannot be determined in the first round because:
    • the ballot is blank
    • the voter has assigned their highest preference to more than one candidate

Rejected ballots are not included in the calculation of the threshold.

In a composite ballot, the ballot may be rejected for all offices if it is damaged, contains identifying marks, or is completely blank (i.e., the voter did not vote for any office). If the circumstances for rejecting the ballot only apply to one office and not the other offices on a composite ballot (e.g., the voter gave two candidates the highest ranking for mayor, but did not make the same error when voting for councillor) then the ballot would only be rejected for that office.

Single Elimination

In the single elimination method, only one candidate is eliminated from the vote counting per round.

If it is necessary to eliminate a candidate because no candidate has reached the threshold needed to be elected, the candidate with the fewest votes in that round is eliminated. The number of votes that a candidate has includes the votes cast for the candidate in the first round, and any votes that were transferred to the candidate in subsequent rounds.

If more than one candidate is tied with the fewest votes, the tie must be broken and one candidate eliminated in that round (see Breaking a Tie).

Successful Candidate

In a multi-member election, a candidate who has reached or exceeded the threshold and has the highest number of votes is the “successful candidate”. The “successful candidate” is the candidate whose surplus will be distributed in that round.

There is only one "successful candidate" per round, unless the number of candidates who have reached the threshold is equal to the number of candidates to be elected. (In that case, counting stops and there is no need to transfer any candidate’s surplus.)

In the regulation, the term "successful" is used instead of "elected" because the clerk is not required to declare candidates to be elected until "as soon as possible after voting day".

Successful Vote

A successful vote is a vote for a candidate that is the successful candidate in that round. In the regulation, the term "successful vote" is used as a shorter alternative to "vote cast for the successful candidate" or "vote received by the successful candidate".

Surplus

In a multi-member election, if the successful candidate receives more votes than the threshold (i.e., the number of votes needed to be elected), the number of "extra" votes is called the surplus.

The value of the surplus must be distributed amongst continuing candidates so that other candidates can reach the threshold. This is done by transferring a portion of each vote received by the successful candidate, so that the equivalent of the surplus number of votes is transferred to other candidates and the successful candidate’s vote total is the same as the threshold.

Surplus Portion of a Vote

This is the value of the portion of a successful vote that will be transferred to the next highest preference on the ballot. The portion is determined by multiplying the current value of the ballot (e.g., one full vote, 0.2465 of a vote, etc. depending on the round and any previous transfers) by the transfer ratio. The surplus portion of a vote may not be the same for every ballot that is being distributed as a result of a surplus.

Threshold

The threshold refers to the number of votes that a candidate must receive in order to be elected.

The threshold is calculated using the number of ballots cast, minus the number of rejected ballots. Declined ballots are also not included.

The formula for calculating the threshold is:

formula to calculate threshold

The first step in vote counting for any office is to establish the threshold for that office. The threshold is only calculated once – it does not change for subsequent rounds. Ballots that become exhausted in subsequent rounds of counting do not have any effect on the threshold.

Transfer Ratio

This is the formula that determines the portion of each successful vote or partial vote that will be transferred to the next highest preference on each ballot. The transfer ratio is calculated each time the surplus votes for a successful candidate are to be transferred.

Transferred Vote

A transferred vote is a vote that in an earlier round counted toward a candidate that was eliminated or successful, and now counts towards a different candidate because that candidate had the next highest preference on the ballot.

Votes Cast For a Candidate

These are votes that count toward a candidate because the candidate received the highest ranking on a ballot in the first round of counting.

Votes Received By a Candidate

These include the votes cast for the candidate because the candidate received the highest ranking on a ballot in the first round of counting and any votes or partial votes transferred to the candidate in subsequent rounds.

Example of Counting a Single-Member Election

Thirty people voted, and only one fruit can be chosen. There are four candidates: Cherry, Strawberry, Pear and Apple.

In this example, we will assume that there are no rejected ballots.

Calculate the threshold:

calculation of threshold

The threshold is 16 votes.

Results from Round One:

 

Cherry

Strawberry

Pear

Apple

Round One

5

6

9

10


No candidate has reached the threshold. If single elimination is used, Cherry would be eliminated from the vote counting. If batch elimination is used, Cherry is the only candidate that can be eliminated because there is a chance for Strawberry to finish ahead of Pear in the next round. Cherry has five ballots that must be examined and the votes transferred:

round one ballots

Results from Round Two:

 

Cherry

Strawberry

Pear

Apple

Round One

5

6

9

10

Transfer

-5

+1

+4

Round Two

0

7

13

10


No candidate has reached the threshold. Strawberry has the fewest votes, and is eliminated from the vote counting.

Strawberry’s seven ballots must be examined and the votes transferred:

round two ballots

The vote from Ballot 1, which had been transferred to the second choice candidate after Round One, is now transferred to the third choice. Ballot 6 does not have a next preference marked, and becomes exhausted.

Results from Round Three:

 

Cherry

Strawberry

Pear

Apple

Exhausted

Round One

5

6

9

10

Transfer

-5

+1

+4

Round Two

0

7

13

10

Transfer

-7

+4

+2

1

Round Three

0

0

17

12

1


Pear has exceeded the threshold and is elected.

Example of Counting a Multi-Member Election

One hundred people voted, and three pieces of playground equipment will be chosen. There are five candidates: Monkey Bars, Picnic Table, Sandbox, Swings and Treehouse.

In this example, we will assume that there are no rejected ballots.

Calculate the threshold:

calculation of threshold

The threshold is 26 votes.

Round One

 

Monkey Bars

Picnic Table

Sandbox

Swings

Treehouse

Round One Total

18

5

18

39

20


Swings is the successful candidate. With 39 votes, Swings has exceeded the threshold. The surplus must be distributed.

Calculate the transfer ratio for this round:

calculation of transfer ratio

The transfer ratio for this round is 0.3333.

Calculate the value of the partial vote for each ballot under consideration

transfer ratio x current value of ballot

0.3333 x 1= 0.3333

Each ballot in the first round has a value of one, so the value of the partial vote to be transferred for each of the 39 ballots is 0.3333.

Of the 39 ballots that had Swings as the first choice:

  • 33 had Monkey Bars as second choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.3333)
  • 2 had Picnic Table as second choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.3333)
  • 0 had Sandbox as second choice
  • 3 had Treehouse as second choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.3333)
  • 1 did not rank any choices other than Swings (ballot becomes exhausted; partial vote value of 0.3333 does not count toward any candidate)

Round Two

 

Monkey Bars

Picnic Table

Sandbox

Swings

Treehouse

Exhausted

Round One Total

18

5

18

39

20

Transfer

Add 10.9989 votes

33 x 0.3333

 

Add 0.6666 votes

2 x 0.3333

 

no change

Subtract 12.9987 votes

39 x 0.3333

 

Add 0.9999 votes

3 x 0.3333

 

0.3333 votes

1 x 0.3333

 

Round Two Total

28.9989

5.6666

18

26.0013

20.9999

0.3333


Monkey Bars is the successful candidate. With 28.9989 votes, Monkey bars has exceeded the threshold. The surplus must be distributed.

Calculate the transfer ratio for this round:

calculation of transfer ratio

The transfer ratio for this round is 0.1034.

Calculate the value of the partial vote for each ballot under consideration

Monkey Bars has ballots that are worth one full vote, and transferred ballots that are worth 0.3333 of a vote. The partial vote value must be calculated for each:

transfer ratio x applicable current value of ballot

0.1034 x 1 = 0.1034

0.1034 x 0.3333 = 0.0344

 number of ballots  value of ballot  value of partial vote
 18  1  0.1034
 33  0.3333  0.0344

Of the 18 ballots that had Monkey bars as the first choice:

  • 0 had Picnic Table as second choice
  • 9 had Sandbox as second choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.1034)
  • 9 had Treehouse as second choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.1034)

Of the 33 ballots that had Monkey Bars as the second choice:

  • 0 had Picnic Table as third choice
  • 31 had Sandbox as third choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.0344)
  • 2 had Treehouse as third choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.0344)

Round Three

 

Monkey Bars

Picnic Table

Sandbox

Swings

Treehouse

Exhausted

Round Two Total

28.9989

5.6666

18

26.0013

20.9999

0.3333

Transfer

Subtract 2.9964 votes

18 x 0.1034
33 x 0.0344

 

no change

Add 1.9970 votes

9 x 0.1034
31 x 0.0344

 

Elected

Add 0.9994 votes

9 x 0.1034
2 x 0.0344

 

Round Three Total

26.0025

5.6666

19.9970

26.0013

21.9993

0.3333


No candidate has reached the threshold in this round, so Picnic table is eliminated from the vote counting. Picnic Table has ballots that are worth one vote, and transferred ballots that are worth 0.3333 of a vote. The ballots are transferred according to their current value.

Of the five ballots that had Picnic table as the first choice:

  • 1 had Sandbox as second choice (transfer at value of 1)
  • 4 had Treehouse as second choice (transfer at value of 1)

Of the three ballots that had Picnic table as the second choice:

  • 2 had Sandbox as third choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.3333)
  • 1 had Treehouse as third choice (transfer at partial vote value of 0.3333)

Round Four

 

Monkey Bars

Picnic Table

Sandbox

Swings

Treehouse

Exhausted

Round Three Total

26.0025

5.6666

19.9970

26.0013

21.9993

0.3333

Transfer

Elected

Subtract 5.666 votes

5 x 1
2 x 0.3333

 

Add 1.3333 votes

1x 1
1 x 0.3333

 

Elected

Add 4.333 votes

4 x 1
1 x 0.3333

 

Round Four Total

26.0025

0

21.3303

26.0013

26.3326

0.3333


Treehouse is the final successful candidate.

Swings, Monkey Bars and Treehouse are elected.

Complete Vote Count

 

Monkey Bars

Picnic Table

Sandbox

Swings

Treehouse

Exhausted

Round One Total

18

5

18

39

20

 

Transfer

Add 10.9989 votes

33 x 0.3333

 

Add 0.6666 votes

2 x 0.3333

 

no change

Subtract 12.9987 votes

39 x 0.3333

 

Add 0.9999 votes

3 x 0.3333

 

0.3333 votes

1 x 0.3333

 

Round Two Total

28.9989

5.6666

18

26.0013

20.9999

0.3333

Transfer

Subtract 2.9964 votes

18 x 0.1034
33 x 0.0344

 

no change

Add 1.9970 votes

9 x 0.1034
31 x 0.0344

 

Elected

Add 0.9994 votes

9 x 0.1034
2 x 0.0344

 

Round Three Total

26.0025

5.6666

19.9970

26.0013

21.9993

0.3333

Transfer

Elected

Subtract 5.666 votes

5 x 1
2 x 0.3333

 

Add 1.3333 votes

1x 1
1 x 0.3333

 

Elected

Add 4.333 votes

4 x 1
1 x 0.3333

 

Round Four Total

26.0025

0

21.3303

26.0013

26.3326

0.3333

Contact Us

If you have questions or would like to give feedback on this guide, please contact us at mea.info@ontario.ca.

You can also contact your regional Municipal Services Office:

Central Municipal Services Office
13th Floor, 777 Bay St.
Toronto ON M5G 2E5
Telephone: 416-585-6226 or 1-800-668-0230

Lower Tier, Upper Tier and Single Tier Municipalities (Barrie, Dufferin, Durham, Halton, Hamilton, Muskoka, Niagara, Orillia, Peel, Simcoe, Toronto, York).

Eastern Municipal Services Office
Rockwood House
8 Estate Lane
Kingston ON K7M 9A8
Telephone: 613-545-2100 or 1-800-267-9438

Lower Tier, Upper Tier and Single Tier Municipalities (Belleville, Brockville, Cornwall, Dundas/ Glengarry, Frontenac, Gananoque, Haliburton, Hastings, Kawartha Lakes, Kingston, Lanark, Leeds and Grenville, Lennox & Addington, Northumberland, Ottawa, Pembroke, Peterborough, Prescott, Prescott-Russell, Prince Edward, Quinte West, Renfrew, Smith Falls and Stormont).

Northern Municipal Services Office (Sudbury)
Suite 40, 159 Cedar St.
Sudbury ON P3E 6A5
Telephone: 705-564-0120 or 1-800-461-1193

Districts (Algoma, Cochrane, Manitoulin, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Sudbury and Timiskaming).

Northern Municipal Services Office (Thunder Bay)
Suite 223, 435 James St. S
Thunder Bay ON P7E 6S7
Telephone: 807-475-1651 or 1-800-465-5027

Districts (Kenora, Rainy River and Thunder Bay).

Western Municipal Services Office
2nd Floor, 659 Exeter Rd
London ON N6E 1L3
Telephone: 519-873-4020 or 1-800-265-4736

Lower Tier, Upper Tier and Single Tier Municipalities (Brant, Brantford, Bruce, Chatham-Kent, Elgin, Essex, Grey, Guelph, Haldimand, Huron, Lambton, London, Middlesex, Norfolk, Oxford , Perth, St. Thomas, Stratford, Waterloo, Wellington and Windsor).